EMTZA Constitution



















Established –1948 Printing – January 2019







United Synagogue Youth


Table of Contents




The Articles:

  1. Name
  2. Aims & Objectives
    1. Aims
    2. Objectives
      1. Study
      2. Observance of Shabbat & Haggim
      3. Prayer
      4. Kashrut
      5. The Synagogue
      6. The Jewish Community
      7. The Brotherhood of Man
  3. Affiliation
  4. Membership
    1. Membership Defined
  5. Dues
    1. Amount
    2. Payment
  6. Organization
    1. Structure
    2. Regional Board
      1. Members
      2. Subsidies
      3. Duties of the Board
      4. Board Meetings
    3. Regional Officers
      1. Offices
      2. Qualifications
      3. Terms of Office
      4. Duties
      5. Vacancies
      6. Elections
  7. Committees
    1. Committees
    2. Temporary Committees
    3. Appointments
    4. Personal Standards for Regional Board Members
  8. Conventions
    1. Kinnus
      1. Time & Place
      2. Objectives
      3. Planning
      4. Quorum
    2. Winter Convention
      1. Time & Place
      2. Objectives
      3. Requirements
    3. Spring Kallah
      1. Time & Place
      2. Elections
      3. Delegates
      4. Quorum
      5. Awards
      6. Objectives
    4. Convention Code of Conduct
  9. Awards
    1. Time of Distribution
    2. Awards
  10. Chapter of the Year
  11. Emergencies
  12. Supremacy of International USY
  13. Constitution and Parliamentary Authority
    1. Authority of Constitution 
    2. Interpretation of the Constitution
    3. Parliamentary Authority
  14. Amendment Procedure
    1. Circulation of Amendments
  15. Appendix A






         We, the United Synagogue Youth of Midwestern North America, united through our common devotion to the principles of Conservative Judaism, and to the synagogue as the center of the Jewish Community, to the home as the center of Jewish life dedicated to the perpetuation of our Jewish civilization and heritage, and recognizing that youth must perpetuate Judaism, do hereby establish this constitution.



         The name of the organization shall be EMTZA REGION UNITED SYNAGOGUE YOUTH.



Section 1 – The Aim

         The aim of EMTZA Region USY is to offer opportunities to Jewish youth to continue and strengthen his/ her identification with Judaism and with the synagogue as the central agency of Jewish life in America and the home as the center of life, and Israel as the common homeland of the Jewish people, and to give Jewish youth an awareness of the essential harmony between the traditions and ideals of Judaism and world Democracy. In consonance with this aim, EMTZA Region USY seeks to develop a program based on the interests, needs, and the personality of the teenager.

Section 2 – Objectives

  1. Study – The knowledge of our common Jewish heritage and the Hebrew language is essential to creative Jewish living. Therefore, USY affirms its support to these ideals of study by:
    1. Encouraging that each chapter provide the facilities for its members to acquire a reading knowledge of Hebrew.
    2. Encouraging that each chapter provide for its members facilities to study Judaism
    3. Encouraging its members to discover the enjoyment and inspiration and knowledge derived from reading books of Jewish interest; listening, playing, and dancing to Jewish music; and admiring Jewish art
  2. Observance of the Shabbat and Haggim – The importance of the Shabbat and Haggim is basically important to Jewish youth. Therefore, EMTZA Region USY dedicates itself to the sanctification of the Shabbat and Haggim by:
    1. Encouraging its members to attend T’ffillot at least three times per month. One of these must be a Shabbat service.
    2. Encouraging its members to attend T’ffillot on all Haggim and refrain from attending school on Haggim
    3. Encouraging its members to join with their families in the observance of the Shabbat and Haggim
  3. Prayer – Prayer is one of the three pillars of Jewish life – Torah (study), Avodah (prayer), and G’milut Hasadim (good deeds)
    1. We believe that the Jewish teenager should experience the feeling of kinship and power arising out of public worship and the feeling of nearness to God arising out of private devotion
    2. Each chapter shall be required hold services on a regular scheduled basis
  4. Kashrut – The observance of the dietary laws has inculcated Jewish values and facilitated Jewish survival. Therefore, EMTZA Region USY:
    1. Requires that its chapters observe the dietary laws at their functions as well as to and from Regional functions
    2. Urges its members to observe Kashrut in their homes and in their lives
  5. The Synagogue – The synagogue has been the center of Jewish life. Therefore, EMTZA Region USY dedicates itself to strengthening the synagogue by intensifying the participation of USY members in synagogue program through
    1. Establishing a teenage congregation
    2. Having members of the teenage group whenever feasible participate in conducting services
    3. Having members of USY regard themselves as youth members of the adult congregation and as such, participate in congregation functions and affairs
  6. The Jewish Community – No Jewish youth organization is sufficient unto itself. It must share concern for and activity on behalf of all Israel. To this end, EMTZA Region USY:
    1. Cooperates with other Jewish groups for common purposes
    2. Participates in the affairs of the local Jewish Community
    3. Accepts its share of responsibility for Jewish rehabilitation and philanthropy wherever is needed
  7. The Brotherhood of Man – The welfare of humanity is the common concern of Jews. Therefore, USY cooperates on the local, national, and international levels with the forces:
    1. Working for Democracy
    2. Working for worldwide understanding
    3. Working for human welfare



         EMTZA Region USY is a region of International United Synagogue Youth, which is a member organization of the United Synagogue of America and of the World Zionist Organization. The region is sponsored and guided by EMTZA Region USY’s United Synagogue Youth Commission.



Section 1 – Membership Defined

  1. Any USY group chartered and declared to be in EMTZA Region by International USY shall be a member of the Region
  2. A member in good standing is any dues-paying member who compiles with the standards adopted by International USY and EMTZA Region USY and is in the ninth through twelfth grade of secular school or Day School
  3. In order to be a participating member at any Regional function or to serve on the Regional Board in any capacity, a member must be in good standing
  4. In order for a chapter to participate or send delegates to any Regional function, the chapter must be in good standing according to chapter standards adopted by International and EMTZA Region USY



Section 1 – Amount

  1. Regional Dues shall be set by the Regional Youth Commission.

Section 2 – Payment

  1. Groups failing to pay dues by November 1st shall be considered as not in good standing until their payments are paid.



Section 1 – Structure

         The Region is organized into two bodies: the membership (represented by the Convention body), and the Regional Board

Section 2 – The Regional Board

  1. The Board shall consist of:
    1. Regional Officers
    2. The immediate past president of the Region
    3. The President of each congregational group
    4. Chairmen of temporary committees whose presence at board meetings is deemed necessary by the president
    5. Chairmen of standing committees
    6. Members of the region who are members of the International USY Board
    7. There may be proxy votes for Chapter Presidents who cannot attend a board meeting
    8. There may be one proxy vote per committee if there is not chairmen present at the board meeting
      1. The chairmen shall appoint a proxy
  2. Expense Subsidies
    1. The Youth Commission shall subsidize transportation costs of board members attending board meetings at its discretion.
    2. If the president of congregational group is unable to attend a board meeting, the Youth Commission is not obligated to subsidize a proxy
  3. Duties of the Board
    1. The board shall transact regional business between conventions
    2. The board shall plan regional activities
    3. The board shall enact decisions of the Regional Convention, but may be overruled by the Convention Body
    4. In case of a vacancy in office, the board shall elect one of its members to fill the vacancy.
    5. The board shall have the power to amend this constitution by the same means as the Convention Body would
  4. Board Meetings
    1. The board shall meet at least three times each year
    2. Meeting shall be called by the President or by written petition from a majority of the board members
    3. Board members shall be notified at least fifteen days prior to each board meeting
    4. A quorum shall be one more than one half of the board members
    5. Voting members with one or more positions entitling them to a vote at board meetings shall be awarded one vote per member, regardless of the number or rank of positions

Section 3 – Regional Officers

  1. Offices

The offices of EMTZA Region USY shall be President, Executive Vice President, Israel Affairs Vice President, Religion/Education Vice-President, Social Action/Tikun Olam Vice-President, Member/Kadima Vice-President, and Communication Vice President.

  1. Qualifications
    1. Each officer shall be a member in good standing in a chapter that is in good standing for at least one term prior to his/her election
    2. Each candidate shall currently be serving or shall have served on a Chapter Executive Board, on Regional General Board, or on a Committee of the Regional General Board for no less than one-half of a term
      1. A term is defined as the time between two chapter elections
      2. Any person who has been prematurely removed or has resigned from any of the above positions shall be deemed ineligible to run for Regional Executive Board
      3. Extenuating circumstances shall be reviewed prior to elections by the Regional Youth Director and Regional President
    3. Any person who has prior knowledge of an extended trip outside of EMTZA Region USY over a time-period of three consecutive months shall not be allowed to run for Regional Executive Board. Extenuating circumstances shall be reviewed prior to elections by the Regional Youth Direction and Regional President.
    4. No person permanently residing outside of the geographical boundaries of EMTZA Region USY shall be eligible to run or serve on the Regional Executive Board. Extenuating circumstances shall be reviewed prior to elections by the Regional Youth Director and Regional President
    5. A minimum of two metropolitan areas must be represented on regional board including the President.
      1. In the event that no one has been nominated for an office and only one metropolitan area is represented, then someone from the already represented metropolitan area may run for that office.
      2. Minneapolis/St. Paul shall be considered one joint metropolitan area
      3. A metropolitan area shall be defined as a city and all the suburbs adjacent to it
    6. Eligible candidates for President must have served as one of the following three options:
      1. Chapter President, for at least one term immediately prior to election
      2. On the Regional Executive Board, for at least one term immediately prior to the election
      3. At least two terms of Chapter Board and two terms of Regional General Board (unless convention co-chair, then only one year of Regional General Board is needed). He/she may be in their second term of Chapter/Regional General Board leadership
      4. Should there be no such eligible candidates, members who have served on the Regional General Board for at least one term and Chapter Board for at least one term shall be eligible candidates
    7. Any officer running unopposed has the option to call for a vote of acclimation if he/she desires. If this is not the case, the vote will be by secret ballot and he/she must receive a majority vote of approval
  2. Terms of Office

Officers shall serve from their installation to the installation of the successors

  1. Duties of Officers
    1. President
      1. Shall preside over all Regional functions
      2. Shall be vested with executive powers of the Region
      3. Shall call meetings of the Regional Board
      4. Shall be accredited representation of the Region
      5. Shall appoint committee chairpeople
      6. Shall establish temporary committees
      7. Shall, in case of vacancy of office, appoint with the consent of the Executive Board, a member of the board to fill the vacancy until an election is held or the term expires
      8. Shall report to the Regional Convention regarding the state of the Region and shall make suggestions for its improvements
    2. Executive Vice President
      1. Shall perform the duties of President in her/his absence
      2. Shall oversee the presentation of awards to chapters
      3. Shall work closely with convention chairs and serve as a liaison between convention chairs and Regional Executive Board
      4. Shall oversee RGB Committees as needed
      5. Shall be in contact with Chapter Vice Presidents throughout the region concerning Chapter attendance and Chapter programming
      6. Shall oversee all regional programs and work to enhance programming on both the Chapter and Regional levels
    3. Israel Affairs Vice President
      1. Shall work to encourage participation in International USY Israel Programs: Native, Israel Pilgrimage, etc.
      2. Shall be in contact with each chapter concerning their Israel programming
      3. Shall promote membership and oversee al Chalutzim programming
      4. Shall work to create new and innovative Israel programming on the regional and chapter level
      5. Shall engage in follow up programming for USYers returning form an Israel experience
    4. Religion/Education Vice President
      1. Shall be in contact with each chapter concerning its religious and educational programming
      2. Shall aid in the organization and execution of all religious and educational programming at regional functions
      3. Shall promote membership and oversee all Abraham Joshua Heschel Honors Society programming
    5. Social Action/Tikun Olam Vice-President
      1. Shall be in contact with each chapter concerning SATO programming
      2. Shall be responsible for ensuring the collection of Tikun Olam monies by the Region
      3. Shall be responsible for ensuring the collection and submission of Tikun Olam monies from the chapters to the International United Synagogue Youth Tikun Olam fund, enabling those chapters to allocate funds as described by the International Tikun Olam policy when applicable
      4. Shall aid in the organization and execution of all SATO programs at Regional functions
    6. Membership/Kadima Vice-President
      1. Shall work to create and begin new USY and Kadima chapters, open lines of communication to any unaffiliated group or reorganizing chapter, and investigate chapters with declining membership
      2. Shall work with the President, Youth Director, and chapter on increasing USY and Kadima membership
      3. Shall be in contact will all Kadima chapters within the Region concerning membership, programming, and relations with USY.
      4. Shall plan and execute a Kadima Kinnus
      5. Shall be in contact with each chapter concerning their general programming
      6. Shall work to create a new and innovative programming for chapters
      7. Shall oversee the regional program bank
    7. Communication Vice-President
      1. Shall take minutes and mail copies of minutes to board members within thirty days of the meeting
      2. Shall issue correspondence as requested by the President or Regional Board
      3. Shall oversee EMTZA USY’s website
      4. Shall publish a regional newsletter at least thrice annually
      5. Shall oversea and maintain the Sister Chapter program
  2. Elections
    1. Officers shall be annually elected at the Regional Spring Kallah
    2. Candidate Information/Running
      1. A committee consisting of the President of each chapter (or a designated chapter representative), Regional Director, and Regional Officer, shall meet at some time before elections
      2. The purpose of this meeting shall be for the presidents to obtain information about the candidates running for office in order to relay it to the delegates during chapter caucuses.
      3. One month before elections, all candidates shall file a Candidate Information Sheet (CIS) for only one position or they will not be eligible to run. The only exception will be if there are no CI’s for a particular office, nominations shall be allowed without filing a CIS.
      4. Before Spring Kallah and after the CIS’s have been collected at the Regional Office, the Regional President shall ask any candidates if they would like to change the office for which they are filing ONLY in the case that there are any other people from the same metropolitan area filing for a higher office.
      5. The CIS’s shall be distributed at the Presidents’ meeting and made available to the general membership
      6. Candidates will not be required to present a petition to the Regional President prior to elections. The only document requirement to run for office will be the Canditate Information Sheet.
    3. Speeches
      1. Each candidate for the Presidency shall have five minutes in which he/she may speak for his/her candidacy and/or have another do so
      2. Each candidate for the Executive Vice President office shall have four minutes in which he/she may speak for his/her candidacy and/or have another do so
      3. Each candidate for each other office shall have three minutes in which he/she may speak for his/her candidacy and/or have another to do so
      4. Candidates shall speak in the order in which they are nominated
    4. Nominations
      1. Each candidate must be nominated for an office by a delegate to the elections assembly (excluding the incumbent Regional Executive Board and candidates for the Regional Executive Board)
      2. Nominations can be no longer than 45 seconds for any candidate
      3. No more than four delegates shall nominate any candidate
      4. Candidates must inform the presiding officer whom they wish to have nominate them sometime before elections
    5. Voting
      1. Elections shall be held in this order: President, Executive Vice President, Israel Affairs, Religion/Education Vice President, Social Action/Tikun Olam Vice President, Membership/Kadima Vice President, Communications Vice President
      2. Voting shall be by a secret ballot, unless a vote of acclamation has been called.
      3. If no candidate receives a majority vote, which constitutes a victory, there shall be a run­off election between the two leading candidates (a majority is more than half the total votes excluding abstentions).
      4. Ballots shall be counted by the president officer and Regional Staff
      5. Only the name of winning candidates shall be announced
    6. Dropping Down
      1. Before voting takes place for each office, candidates for that office must announce to the Regional President if and what other office they are dropping down to if they happen to lose
      2. Only candidates running for the positions of Regional President and Regional Executive Vice President may drop down. These positions may only drop down once.



Section 1 – Committees

  1. All committees shall be decided upon by the President in consultation with Regional Officers
  2. The Board with two-thirds vote may establish committees they feel are necessary at the winter board meeting

Section 2 – Temporary Committees

  1. The President may establish temporary committees

Section 3 – Appointments

  1. The president shall not appoint chairpeople and when necessary committee members. The President shall discuss the qualifications of individuals with the Regional Executive Board.
  2. No senior shall be on a committee by him/herself

Section 4 – Personal Standards for Regional Board Members

  1. EMTZA Regional USY personal requirements for Regional Officers and standards for Regional chairmen or co-chairmen elected or appointed are the following:
    1. Attendance at a minimum of two-thirds of all Regional functions
    2. Attendance at a minimum of 80% of all chapter functions
    3. Attendance at a minimum of four religious services monthly, three of which must be Shabbat services
    4. Study of Judaica at least three hours weekly
    5. Keep the laws of Kashrut at all times when representing USY, and when possible in private
    6. Shall refrain from school exams on Shabbat
    7. These standards shall be enforced by the Regional President and Regional Director as they see fit.



Section 1 – Kinnus

  1. Time and Place
    1.  Kinnus shall be held annually in November, not necessarily on Thanksgiving, in a hotel, camp, or other place deemed appropriate by the Branch Director, Branch Engagement Director, and sitting Regional Executive Board when scheduling is decided.
    2. The Regional Executive Board may vote to reinstate Kinnus back to the traditional Thanksgiving date following the first Kinnus not on Thanksgiving (2019), if they feel that it is in the best interest of the region to revert to the original scheduling practice
  2. Objectives

The goals of Kinnus shall be:

    1. To reveal the beauty and spirit of Shabbat
    2. To present opportunities for study and discussion about a Jewish concern
    3. To promote friendships and dialogues between USYers from neighboring communities
  1. Planning
    1. The Kinnus chairpeople shall be chosen annually by the Regional Executive Board, form a pool of candidates of the metropolitan area where Kinnus is being held.
    2. Kinnus shall be planned by the aforementioned chairpeople in conjunction with the Regional Board
    3. Local committees shall be utilized on an as needed basis
  2. Quorum

Quorum shall consist of one more than one half of the total convention body

Section 2 – Winter Convention

  1. Time & Place

The Winter Convention shall be planned by the Region and will be hosted by one chapter annually on a weekend between International Convention and Spring Kallah. The site and date shall be decided by the Regional President and Youth Director in consultation with the Chapter Youth Directors.

  1. Objectives

The goals of the Winter Convention shall be:

  1. To reveal the beauty and spirit of Shabbat.
  2. To present opportunities for study and discussion about a Jewish concern.
  3. To promote friendships and dialogues between USYers from neighboring communities
  1. Requirements

Each hosting chapter is required to provide:

  1. Housing within walking distance of the synagogue to any USYers who may request such.
  2. Housing with kosher facilities for any USYers who may request such.
  3. Time devoted to prayer, study, social action, and social programs

Section 3 – Spring Kallah

  1. Time & Place

Spring Kallah shall be held between Winter Convention and Memorial Day at a designated camp site or resort.

  1. Elections
    1. Elections for the Regional Executive Board shall take place at Spring Kallah.
    2. Before the elections take place, candidates shall have an opportunity to participate in a “candidate’s forum” at Spring Kallah
    3. After elections, the new Regional Executive Board shall meet to determine chairpeople for the upcoming year.
  2. Delegates
    1. Every attendee of Spring Kallah, who is in grades 9-12, shall be eligible to be a voting delegate in that year’s elections, assuming the USYer is in good standing with their chapter, meaning they have paid their dues. To ensure fair representation for all chapters, an equitable scale will be used to set limits on total voting delegates per chapter based off of convention attendance. For this scale, attendance ranges of 5 USYers will correspond to 3 votes. Therefore, the breakdown of delegates for each range are as such:

1-5 USYers: 3 delegates

6-10 USYers: 6 delegates

11-15 USYers: 9 delegates

16-20 USYers: 12 delegates

21-25 USYers: 15 delegates

26-30 USYers: 18 delegates

  1. The same pattern will be followed for any representation over 30 USYers
  2. If a chapter brings less than the number of delegates allocated to them, their number cannot be adjusted, and they will simply have as many votes as USYers present.
  3. It shall be the responsibility of the chapter youth directors to determine who will be the voting delegates for their chapter per election, based off of the previous guidelines.

    1. Regional officers shall be voting delegates on behalf of the region, not their chapters and will not be counted in the scale of adjusted delegation for their chapters.
  1. Quorum

Quorum shall consist of one more than one-half the total delegates present

  1. Awards

Regional awards shall be distributed at Spring Kallah.

  1. Objectives

Spring Kallah shall serve as a convention:

  1. To elect new Regional Officers and say farewell to the seniors
  2. To appoint new Regional General Board chairpeople
  3. To reveal the beauty and spirit of Shabbat
  4. To present opportunities for study and discussion about a Jewish concern

Section 4 – Regional Code of Conduct

Participants of the conventions of EMTZA Region USY’s shall abide by the Regional Code of Conduct as adopted by the Regional Youth Commission




Section 1 – Time of Distribution

Awards shall be distributed annually at Spring Kallah

 Section 2 – Awards

  1. The following awards shall be given out each year, as defined by the Regional Executive Board:
  2. Chapter of the Year
  3. Chapters of Excellence
  4. Most Improved Chapter
  5. Best Chapter Scrapbook
  6. Additional awards shall be determined by the Regional Executive Board
  7. In the decision-making process, each chapter shall be represented by their Chapter Presidents at Spring Kallah for the awards meeting. The Chapter Presidents will have the opportunity to present individually the case for the chapter to the Regional Executive Board before the vote. The Chapter Presidents will then leave the room for the Regional Executive Board to have a further discussion and vote on the awards.
  8. If a chapter does not have their Chapter President at Spring Kallah, then the next ranking officer on the Chapter Board will be the representative.



  1. Chapter of the Year shall be chosen by the Regional Executive Board at Spring Kallah
  2. The Regional Executive Board is allowed to base Chapter of the Year on other criteria if need be.
  3.  Chapter of the Year is an award given to one chapter each fiscal year in USY
  4.  A chapter may be awarded Chapter of the Year consecutively if the Regional Executive Board deems that chapter to be above and beyond the minimal guidelines
  5. Chapters of the Excellence shall strive to achieve these six basic areas of concentration:
    1. Membership – increase members, both active and inactive from the previous year. If not possible to increase membership, try to maintain the same number of members.
    2. Programming – each chapter shall have at least two programs in the following categories: social action, Tikun Olam, synagogue involvement, religious education, Israel awareness, leadership building, social programming
    3. Tikun Olam Donations – each chapter shall donate a minimum of $6.13 per capita.
    4. Communications – each chapter shall use web-based media, flyers and/or newsletters to promote programs, and must submit all flyers and/or newsletters produced throughout the year
    5. USY Clubs – recruit members for Heschel, HeChalutzim, and the 613 Mitzvah Corps, while striving for all member to be part of these organizations. Make these organizations active parts of the chapter through programming and education.
    6. Ruach – exhibit the USY spirit and embody the values of community, Judaism, and USY.
  6.  Any chapter that meets aforementioned Chapter of the Year criteria shall be qualified to become a Chapter of Excellence
  7.  A scrapbook shall be submitted at Spring Kallah entailing all of the details above and any extra information




The President and/or the Regional Board, with the approval of the Youth commission, may take action in areas not provided for in this Constitution when such action is necessary for the welfare of the region.



The Constitution of International USY is the supreme law of USY. No by-laws or resolutions of the region or of any of its chapters shall be in conflict with the policies of the Constitution of International USY.



Section 1—Authority of Constitution

No resolutions, by-laws decisions of the Regional Board of resolutions or by-laws of member chapters shall be valid if in conflict with the Constitution or Regional Policy.

Section 2—Interpretation of the Constitution

The Regional Board and the Youth Commission in joint consideration shall interpret this Constitution and all by-laws and resolutions of EMTZA Region USY.

Section 3—Parliamentary Authority

Parliamentary Authority of the region shall be vested in the President, having the powers called “Presidential Prerogative.”


Section 1—Circulation of Amendments to be Considered

Proposed amendments must be circulated among congregational chapters with chapter presidents responsible for notifying the entire general membership of their respective chapter of the proposed amendments, at least 30 days prior to consideration at convention, spring and summer board meetings, but only 15 days prior to winter board meetings.

Section 2—Ratification

  1.  Proposed amendments may be revised before taking a final vote.
  2. A proposed amendment shall become part of the Constitution following a 2/3 majority vote in favor of the amendment at the convention or board meeting, providing quorum is filled.

Section 3—Publication Constitution

  1. Publication of this Constitution shall be every two years, or at the discretion of the President.
  2.  Upon the ratification of an amendment by the Regional Board or Convention, the acting (or) new Constitution (or) equivalent shall publish an errata sheet and send it to the appropriate members of the Youth Commission and the Regional Board.


Since Article XII states the International Constitution’s supremacy, it should be noted that the said Constitution sets the following standards for Regional Executive Board members, in addition to those already stated in our Constitution:

  1. Regional officers shall keep Shabbat with respect to the response of the Rabbinical Assembly pertaining to travel, and shall refrain from all public functions thereon.
  2. Regional officers shall also observe the following Haggim: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Sh’mini Atzeret, Pesach, and Shavuo